Michael Chappell

Lecturer in Engineering Science

Michael is an Associate Professor of Engineering Science at the Institute of Biomedical Engineering (IBME), Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford. He heads the Quantitative Biomedical Inference group that brings together inference techniques from information engineering with mathematical models of physics and physiology to estimate quantitative information for biomedical and especially clinical applications. His main interest is in medical imaging of metabolism and haemodynamics.

Michael read Engineering Science in Oxford at undergraduate level, specialising in information engineering topics and completing a project on the detection of landmines. He stayed to completed a doctorate in SCUBA diving, primarily using mathematical models to explore the growth of bubbles from dissolved gases under decompression in the body – the resulting sickness is commonly referred to as ‘the bends’. Finally he found his way into Magnetic Resonance Imaging and now develops ways to measure blood flow and pH in the body with applications in stroke, cancer and dementia.

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Featured Publications

Introduction to Perfusion Quantification using Arterial Spin Labelling

Introduction to Perfusion Quantification using Arterial Spin Labelling

Author: Michael Chappell, Bradley MacIntosh, Thomas Okell

Publisher: OUP

Publication date: 2017

Part of the series Oxford Neuroimaging Primers, Michael Chappell & Mark Jenkinson (Eds), OUP, www.neuroimagingprimers.org

Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is an increasingly popular tool to study the brain. What sets it apart from other neuroimaging methods is the combination of quantitative measurements of a physiologically well-defined process, namely perfusion, and a completely non-invasive acquisition methodology.

Cerebral perfusion is a critical component to brain health, as it is the primary means to deliver nutrients to support brain function as well as clearing waste products. Hence it is a useful quantity to study in disease where changes in perfusion can indicate regions of the brain that are pathological. Likewise changes in perfusion can be indicative of greater demand for nutrients, such as might be required in response to an increase in neuronal activity.

With the advent of a consensus by the ASL community on good practice and a recommendation on robust methods for ASL data collection, more and more researchers are now able to access and use ASL. Despite the technological advances, ASL remains a technique with a low signal to noise ratio. This makes the wise choice of the appropriate analysis methods more important.

The aim of this primer is to equip someone new to the field of perfusion imaging and ASL with the knowledge not only to make good choices about ASL acquisition and analysis, but also to understand what choices they are making and why. Examples of analysis applied to real data are given throughout the text and instructions on how to reproduce the analyses are illustrated on the primer website.

Written to provide a stand-alone introduction to perfusion qualification using ASL, this primer also works with other texts in the Oxford Neuroimaging Primers series to provide a comprehensive overview of the increasingly influential field of neuroimaging.

Introduction to Neuroimaging Analysis

Introduction to Neuroimaging Analysis

Author: Mark Jenkinson & Michael Chappell

Publisher: OUP

Publication date: 2017

Part of the series Oxford Neuroimaging Primers, Michael Chappell & Mark Jenkinson (Eds), OUP, www.neuroimagingprimers.org

MRI has emerged as a powerful way of studying in-vivo brain structure and function in both healthy and disease states. Whilst new researchers may be able to call upon advice and support for acquisition from operators, radiologists and technicians, it is more challenging to obtain an understanding of the principles of analysing neuroimaging data. This is crucial for choosing acquisition parameters, designing and performing appropriate experiments, and correctly interpreting the results.

This primer gives a general and accessible introduction to the wide array of MRI-based neuroimaging methods that are used in research. Supplemented with online datasets and examples to enable the reader to obtain hands-on experience working with real data, it provides a practical and approachable introduction for those new to the neuroimaging field. The text also covers the fundamentals of what different MRI modalities measure, what artifacts commonly occur, the essentials of the analysis, and common ‘pipelines’ including brain extraction, registration and segmentation.

As it does not require any background knowledge beyond high-school mathematics and physics, this primer is essential reading for anyone wanting to work in neuroimaging or grasp the results coming from this rapidly expanding field.

The Oxford Neuroimaging Primers are short texts aimed at new researchers or advanced undergraduates from the biological, medical or physical sciences. They are intended to provide a broad understanding of the ways in which neuroimaging data can be analysed and how that relates to acquisition and interpretation. Each primer has been written so that it is a stand-alone introduction to a particular area of neuroimaging, and the primers also work together to provide a comprehensive foundation for this increasingly influential field.

Physiology for Engineers

Physiology for Engineers

Author: Michael Chappell & Stephen Payne

Publisher: Springer

Publication date: 2016

Physiology for Engineers provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formatted and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies.

Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart, and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and central nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reaction kinetics, pharmacokinetic modelling and tracer kinetics.